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[33] For example, the great vessels run centrally through the body; many smaller vessels branch from these. [1] One reason is that humans have a different neuraxis and another is that unlike animals that rest on four limbs, humans are considered when describing anatomy as being in the standard anatomical position, which is standing up with arms outstretched. Similarly, in the lower leg, structures near the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures near the fibula are fibular (or peroneal). For example, as humans are approximately bilaterally symmetrical organisms, anatomical descriptions usually use the same terms as those for other vertebrates. Medial can be used, but in the case of radiates indicates the central point, rather than a central axis as in vertebrates. Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position. Thus, the "rostrocaudal axis" refers to a C shape (see image). Echinoderm larvae are not included, since they are bilaterally symmetrical. For example, the mid-clavicular line is used as part of the cardiac exam in medicine to feel the apex beat of the heart. [30] Thus the upper arm in humans is proximal and the hand is distal. In all cases, the usage of terms is dependent on the body plan of the organism. 'right'; Latin: sinister, lit. Specific terms exist to describe how close or far something is to the head or tail of an animal. [1][2] Much of this information has been standardised in internationally agreed vocabularies for humans (Terminologia Anatomica)[2] and animals (Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria). [24] For example, in a dog the nose is anterior to the eyes and the tail is considered the most posterior part; in many fish the gill openings are posterior to the eyes but anterior to the tail. An organism that is symmetrical on both sides has three main axes that intersect at right angles. Anatomical lines are used to describe anatomical location. Similarly, the term "caudal" is used more in embryology and only occasionally used in human anatomy. Organisms that are attached to a substrate, such as sponges, animal-like protists also have distinctive ends. Volar can also be used to refer to the underside of the palm or sole, which are themselves also sometimes used to describe location as palmar and plantar. Similarly, a perpendicular transverse axis can be defined by points on opposite sides of the organism. Superficial (from Latin superficies 'surface') describes something near the outer surface of the organism. Two specialized terms are useful in describing views of arachnid legs and pedipalps. [56] Humans do not have a beak, so a term such as "rostral" used to refer to the beak in some animals is instead used to refer to part of the brain;[57] humans do also not have a tail so a term such as "caudal" that refers to the tail end may also be used in humans and animals without tails to refer to the hind part of the body.[58]. [2] This is because the brain is situated at the superior part of the head whereas the nose is situated in the anterior part. [42][43][44] In humans, "cranial" and "cephalic" are used to refer to the skull, with "cranial" being used more commonly. Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans. "Deep" is one of the few anatomical terms of location derived from Old English rather than Latin – the anglicised Latin term would have been "profound" (from Latin profundus 'due to depth').[1][36]. [42][44] Radially symmetrical organisms always have one distinctive axis. Cnidarians (jellyfish, sea anemones and corals) have an incomplete digestive system, meaning that one end of the organism has a mouth, and the opposite end has no opening from the gut (coelenteron). All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. origin (1) The source of information collected in the course of a clinical study, which is distinguished from data collected at the point of patient contact and data which are derived or calculated. They are particularly used to describe the curvature of the uterus.[49][50]. Radially symmetrical organisms include those in the group Radiata – primarily jellyfish, sea anemones and corals and the comb jellies. Several other terms are also used to describe location. Prolateral refers to the surface of a leg that is closest to the anterior end of an arachnid's body. Terms include: Different terms are used because of different body plans in animals, whether animals stand on one or two legs, and whether an animal is symmetrical or not, as discussed above. This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), behind ("posterior") and so on. The long or longitudinal axis is defined by points at the opposite ends of the organism. The meaning of terms that are used can change depending on whether an organism is bipedal or quadrupedal. In such organisms, the end with a mouth (or equivalent structure, such as the cytostome in Paramecium or Stentor), or the end that usually points in the direction of the organism's locomotion (such as the end with the flagellum in Euglena), is normally designated as the anterior end. [2] Thus, there are multiple possible radial axes and medio-peripheral (half-) axes. [46][47] For example, the terms "distal" and "proximal" are also redefined to mean the distance away or close to the dental arch, and "medial" and "lateral" are used to refer to the closeness to the midline of the dental arch. [22] For example, in the anatomical position, the most superior part of the human body is the head and the most inferior is the feet. This is because although teeth may be aligned with their main axes within the jaw, some different relationships require special terminology as well; for example, teeth also can be rotated, and in such contexts terms like "anterior" or "lateral" become ambiguous. For the linguistic terms, see. In radiology, an X-ray image may be said to be "anteroposterior", indicating that the beam of X-rays passes from their source to patient's anterior body wall through the body to exit through posterior body wall. [3] An organism that is round or not symmetrical may have different axes. For example, volar pads are those on the underside of hands, fingers, feet, and toes. The part of the organism attached to the substrate is usually referred to as the basal end (from Latin basis 'support/foundation'), whereas the end furthest from the attachment is referred to as the apical end (from Latin apex 'peak/tip'). "Proximal and distal" are frequently used when describing appendages, such as fins, tentacles, and limbs. The location of anatomical structures can also be described in relation to different anatomical landmarks. Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.Terms used generally derive from Latin or Greek roots and used to describe something in its standard anatomical position.This position provides a definition of what is at the front ("anterior"), behind ("posterior") and so on. [55] However, humans stand upright on two legs, meaning their anterior/posterior and dorsal/ventral directions the same, and the inferior/superior directions necessary. Medial (from Latin medius 'middle') describes structures close to the midline,[2] or closer to the midline than another structure. https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/opposite, She took a chair, seated herself behind the curtain, and steadily fixed her eyes once more on the house, So saying, the Prince marshalled Rowena to the seat of honour, Much in the same manner ought that oligarchy to be established which is next in order: but as to that which is most, He raised the candle above his head and peered across the black void, and there upon the, As the ape-man entered the boma with old Tambudza at his elbow the seven sailors, recognizing him, turned and fled in the, In subdued whispers he sent a half dozen of his Dyaks back beneath the shadow of the palisade to the.

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Taylor B. Jones

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