It can withstand the high temperature used in denaturation and separation of DNA strands during Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Each separated strand acts as a template. The technique was developed by Kary Mullis in 1985 who received Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1993. (c) A foam control system (d)4 temperature control system How do bioreactors help in their production? (iv) Vitamins Taq polymerase is used in the reaction, which can tolerate heat. [Delhi 2010] If a desired gene is identified in an organism for some experiments, explain the process of the following [All India 2009c] (ii) Sparged stirred-tank bioreactors. (ii) It extends the primers using the nucleotides provided in the reaction and the genomic DNA as template. (ii) Purification of products. Thus, PCR can be utilised to amplify a single gene or fragment into thousands of copies to be used in cloning experiments. (a) The recipient bacterial cell is made ‘competent’ to take up the recombinant DNA by treatment with a specific increase in concentration of calcium ions. (d) Other molecules can be removed by appropriate treatments and purified DNA ultimately precipitates out as fine threads in the suspension after the addition of chilled ethanol 3. (i) Denaturation The double stranded DNA is denatured by applying high temperature of 95°C for 15 seconds. 15. We already know that the genetic material of all living organisms is ‘nucleic acid’. it is obtained from a bacterium, Thermus aquaticus. Name the source of the DNA polymerase used in PCR technique. How is the amplification of a gene sample of interest carried out using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)? (i) Bioreactors are large vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products by microbes, plant and animal cells or human cells. [All India 2014; Foreign 2014 ] it is carried out in the following steps: (ii) Reintroduction of the recombinant DNA into bacterial cell can be done by the following methods: The most commonly used bioreactors are of stirred type. What is this product called? (vi) Insertion of recombinant DNA into the host cell/organism occurs by several methods, before which the recipient cells are made competent to receive the DNA. Recombinant DNA Technology involves the following steps in sequence: (i) Isolation of the genetic material (DNA) is carried out in the following steps: (a) DNA is enclosed within the membranes. free from other macromolecules. CBSE 2014 Class 12 Biology Paper II. 17. (iii) formulated with preservatives. (i) Denaturation The double stranded DNA is denatured by applying high temperature of 95°C for 15 seconds. Biotechnology: Principles and Processes Important Questions for CBSE Class 12 Biology Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology. Molecular Basis of Inheritance - Notes | Class 12 | Part 3: Properties of Genetic Material, RNA World 6. Ans. 1. it is carried out in the following steps: Ans. (ii) Suitable pH Presence of these proteins in the cell may interfere with any downstream treatment of DNA such as the functioning of restriction endonuclease and DNA ligase etc., if they are not removed from DNA preparation. (iii) PCR is polymerase chain reaction, multiple copies of the gene of interest can be synthesised in vitro by this technique. MOLECULAR BASIS OF INHERITANCE. (a) PCR technique requires. or All these steps are repeated many times to get several copies of the desired DNA. 2. The host cells that produce foreign gene product are called transgenic organisms or Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). Name a- commonly used bioreactor and any two of its components? RNA in humans does not act as a genetic material but play various other roles such as an adapter, enzyme, helps in protein synthesis, etc. (v) In the spar ged stirred tank bioreactor, sterile air bubbles are sparged, to increase the surface area foi oxygen transfer. (i) Denaturation The double stranded DNA is denatured by applying high temperature of 95°C for 15 seconds. transferred into E. coli cells, the host cell is transformed into ampicillin resistant cells. Amplification of gene is done using polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The enzyme is thermostable and can withstand the high temperature used for denaturation and separation of the two strands of DNA in PCR. ... During isolation of genetic material, the chemical used to precipitate out the purified DNA is. The products obtained through this technique can be utilised as follows: Explain the specific role of this enzyme in PCR. [All India 2009] A schematic representation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) up to the extension stage is given below. [All India 2010] 4. Ans. It extends the primers using the nucleotides provided in the reaction medium and the genomic DNA as the template. Taq polymerase is thermostable and withstands the high temperature used in denaturation process. (i) Separation of desired product. Write any two ways the products obtained through this technique can be utilised. 11. (iii) Extension DNA polymerase extends the primers by adding nucleotides complementary to the template provided in the reaction. (ii) A and C are called palindromes. The bioreactors work by providing optimal conditions to process the culture as well as the production of desired product by maintaining optimum pH, temperature, oxygen and other growth conditions required. Ans. (iii) Salt 12. (i) A-Denaturation of the double stranded DNA. Cellulase is used for digesting the cellulosic cell wall of plant cells. Amplification of gene is done using polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). 8. (i) Name the process • You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. MEDIUM. Recombinant proteins are produced by the expression of recombinant DNA in the transgenic organism. The amplified fragments, if desired can be used to ligate with a vector for further cloning. Bacterial cells are treated with lysozyme to digest the cell wall for releasing DNA. The DNA polymerase used in PCR is Tag polymerase extracted from Thermus aquaticus. (ii) Synthesis of multiple copies of desired gene is carried out by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). (i) Cutting this desired gene at specific location. it is carried out in the following steps: CBSE Class 12 Principles of Inheritance and Variation class 12 Notes Biology in PDF are available for free download in myCBSEguide mobile app. (ii) Identify B. The best app for CBSE students now provides Principles of Inheritance and Variation class 12 Notes latest chapter wise notes for quick preparation of CBSE board exams and school-based annual examinations. (i) Two sets of primers are required. What is the host called that produce a foreign gene product? 1.Explain the basis on which the gel electrophoresis technique works. (vi) The stirrer facilitates mixing and oxygen availability throughout the bioreactor. (iii) Extension DNA polymerase extends the primers by adding nucleotides complementary to the template provided in the reaction. • DNA is stable both chemically and structurally which make it well-built genetic material. The two components of a stirred tank bioreactor are: To release DNA along with other macromolecules such as RNA, proteins, polysaccharides and lipids, bacterial cells/plant or animal tissue are treated with enzymes such as lysozyme (bacteria), cellulase (plant cells), chitinase (fungus). 5. How is the amplification done? Bioreactors are the large volume (100-1000 L) vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products, individual enzymes, etc, using microbial plant, animal or human cells. and Since, DNA is negatively charged molecule so, they can be forced to separate out according to their size towards anode under an electric field through a medium or matrix (commonly used is agarose). (ii) Name two commonly used bioreactors. (a) These are cut with the same endonuclease to obtain sticky ends. (iii) Extension DNA polymerase extends the primers by adding nucleotides complementary to the template provided in the reaction.
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